- Paul Bennett, Director, Schoolhouse Consulting
- Rodney Clifton, Professor of Education Emeritus, St. John's College, University of Manitoba
- Joseph Freedman, Former President, Society for Advancing Educational Research
- Mark Holmes, Professor Emeritus, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education
- William Robson, President and CEO, C.D. Howe Institute
- Barak Rosenshine, Professor Emeritus, University of Illinois
- John Tibbits, President, Conestoga College
Board Of Directors
Malkin Dare, President
Mrs. Dare began her career as an elementary school teacher after graduating from the University of Western Ontario and London Teachers’ College. She later joined the Department of External Affairs and served in Hong Kong and Barbados. As a result of her concern for the state of education in Ontario, Mrs. Dare was one of the founding members of the Organization for Quality Education (OQE). She was OQE’s founding president, a director of the Society for Advancing Educational Research in Education, a member of the Advisory Committee on Judicial Appointments for the Province of Ontario (West and South), and the author of How to Get the Right Education for Your Child and Stairway to Reading. Mrs. Dare is a member of the editorial board of the Journal of School Choice. Mrs. Dare fervently wishes that Canadian public schools would shape up so that she could spend more time on reading, travel, movies, volunteer work, tennis, and bridge.
Maddie Di Muccio, Vice President
Maddie Di Muccio is a former Municipal Town Councillor in Newmarket, Ontario. She has been outspoken regarding transparent and accountable government, appearing on the Michael Coren Show, Newstalk 1010, AM 640, and various print media, such as the National Post and the Toronto Star. Ms. Di Muccio has hosted local lectures on a series of "Empowering" groups of individuals and featuring prominent personalities, and she writes a bi-weekly column on York municipal issues in the Toronto Sun. Her priorities focus on children and youth issues and concerns. Ms. Di Muccio is the parent of three school-age boys.
Nancy Wagner, Secretary-Treasurer
Mrs. Wagner has a diploma in nursing from St. Mary’s Hospital in Kitchener, Ontario and practiced her profession for many years. She and her husband owned and operated their own business, The Bow Shop in Waterloo, Ontario, until its recent sale. Nancy has sat on various boards in her local community and was a member of the Training and Education Committee of the Greater Kitchener-Waterloo Chamber of Commerce. She is past executive committee member of Resurrection High School. Also an advocate for education reform, Mrs. Wagner served as President of the Organization for Quality Education. She has three children and five grandchildren.
John Bachmann, Director
Mr. Bachmann is a professional engineer who recently retired from his job at an industrial distribution company in Mississauga. After graduating from the University of Manitoba in Mechanical Engineering, Mr. Bachmann went to teachers’ college and taught high school in Winnipeg for five years, during which time he earned his B.Ed. Since that time, he has accumulated more than 30 years’ experience in industry, along with an MBA. He is the Past Chairman of the Canadian Fluid Power Association and is involved, with other international associations, in projects intended to improve technology education in elementary and secondary schools. He has written and now teaches a number of online courses in the Industrial Distribution Leadership Certificate Program at Mohawk College.
Tom Berend, Director
Tom Berend is an entrepreneur and software developer. After graduating with an engineering degree, he worked for and consulted to well-known companies such as Canadian Pacific and Loblaws. He then founded and built a software-development firm that sells warehouse management systems around the world, and another that builds control systems for automated conveyors and carousels. After selling those businesses, he became interested in the remediation of severe reading disability and returned to school; he recently earned his Masters of Education and plans to pursue his research interests in a doctoral program.
Monika Gucma-Deras, Director
Mrs. Gucma-Deras gave up her full-time career in public relations to raise her two school-age daughters. After noticing her older daughter's success at her Montessori school, followed by a steep regression in public schools, Mrs. Gucma-Deras home-schooled her daughters for a time - with excellent results. When personal circumstances made it necessary for this family to give up home-schooling, her daughters were placed in a private school. Mrs. Gucma-Deras is involved with community theatre, and recently began teaching dramatic arts at her daughters' school. She is an avid reader and, if additional time became available, Mrs. Gucma-Deras would spend it taking long walks, going to the opera, ballet, and theatre, and taking part in ballroom dancing.
Frank Gue, Director
Mr. Gue is a retired professional electrical engineer, BSc Alberta, MBA McMaster (Hamilton), who worked in the manufacturing and systems management fields and has written published works on these subjects. Mr. Gue also taught technical and management subjects at the college and university level. Mr. Gue has published a hardcover book on factory management and many articles in various professional periodicals, and he has consulted world-wide on this subject. He has served on provincial education task forces, such as the one for 'Standards of Practice for Teachers" and several education policy advisory councils. Mr. Gue founded Burlington Youth Aid, a crisis intervention service, and Taxpayers Coalition Halton. He has served as member or chair of Hamilton Industrial Education Council and several Provincial education task forces and committees. Mr. Gue and his wife are residents of Burlington.
Gerry Nicholls, Director
Gerry Nicholls is one of Canada’s most prominent defenders of our economic and political freedoms. For more than twenty years he was a senior officer at the National Citizens Coalition, Canada’s largest independent pro-free market advocacy group. While at the NCC Gerry directed the group’s political strategy and oversaw its communication campaigns. Gerry now works as a freelance writer and as an independent political consultant. His columns on political affairs have appeared national newspapers including the National Post, The Globe and Mail, and the Sun Media chain. Currently Mr. Nicholls is a Senior Fellow with the Democracy Institute. He is the parent of two sons.
Doretta Wilson, Executive Director
- Mrs. Wilson
holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in business, economics
and psychology from the University of Western Ontario.
She has worked in the private sector mostly in the
area of accounting. Mrs. Wilson has also been a strong advocate
for improving the quality of education offered in
Ontario schools. She served on the board
of Ontario's Education Quality and Accountability
Office (EQAO) from 1997 to 2005 and chaired its audit committee.
She was also a director of the Organization for Quality
Education, co-chair of the Ontario Coalition
for Education Reform, founder and past-president of
the Madonna High School Alumnae Association, and a
past member of the St. Gregory Catholic School Council. Mrs. Wilson is a member of the Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network's National Literacy Strategy Advisory Committee. Mrs. Wilson has been involved in her local community in
various capacities and is a parent of three.
The People Behind SQE
First and foremost, we are mostly parents and now, in some cases, grandparents. Most of us have at least one child who had serious problems at school - difficulty learning to read; lack of challenging material; bullying, and so on. All of us did whatever we could to help our children overcome their difficulties - massive home support, paid tutors, private schools - whatever it took. But once we had saved our own children, we started to worry about the other kids - the ones whose parents can't rescue them because they can't afford it or don't know how.
Some of us are or were teachers ourselves, and so we have a perspective on education problems from the other side as well. Like so many teachers, some of us have actually been hampered in our attempts to do a good job. We know there is a better way, and that is why we became involved with the Society for Quality Education.
We want every child to succeed in school.
The Root of the Problem
In a nutshell, most public schools are not using the most effective teaching methods and materials available. And, as a result, the students are not learning nearly as much as they could.
The Reason Why Good Methods are Being Rejected
Over the course of the 20th century, the philosophy of "progressivism" took hold in faculties of education. Jumping on the progressive bandwagon became a sure-fire way for educators to earn kudos from their colleagues and get their research published. Championing more traditional methods, on the other hand, became a career-limiting move at most North American faculties of education, remaining so to this day. As a result of the bias towards progressivism, public education has become vulnerable to fads (unproven but widely-adopted ideas), some longer-lasting than others. One prominent example of a relatively short-lived fad was the concept of open-concept classrooms, which put multiple elementary classes into one large room. Of course, the resulting noise levels made effective teaching impossible, and this progressive method was abandoned after a few years, but not before millions of dollars had been spent tearing down and then a few years later re-erecting classroom walls. There have been numerous other short-lived fads in our schools, but the current approach, dubbed "child-centred learning", is the longest-lasting fad in North American education. The child-centred approach expects the classroom teacher to customize his or her instruction to meet the individual needs and interests of each and every student - while also making learning easy and fun. child-centred learning emphasizes hands-on, discovery-based learning and an emphasis on the development of "higher-order thinking skills". Practices such as direct teaching, a focus on factual knowledge, and drilling new concepts are strongly discouraged. The child-centred philosophy is so dominant that today few teachers receive training in alternative teaching approaches in their pre-service courses, nor do most school boards offer them as professional development. Indeed, some younger teachers were themselves educated in child-centred classrooms and thus know no other way. In addition, the use of non child-centred methods is frowned upon by the Ministry of Education and school board consultants. The Trillium List, Ontario's list of approved texts, contains mostly child-centred textbooks. Even the provincial curriculum and tests are child-centred. Most classroom teachers want to do their best for their students, but their hands are tied.
The Results of Child-Centred Learning
For some students, most of them girls, the results of child-centred learning are excellent. However, for other students, in particular low-income students and boys, the results of child-centred learning are disastrous. The distressingly-high numbers of disadvantaged students who drop out of school and the alarming decrease in the proportion of males in Canadian universities was predicted many years ago by critics of child-centred education.
Child-centred learning increases the differences among children - and, the higher the grade, the greater the differences become. A typical grade 3 class, for instance, would have students ranging in ability from grade 1 to grade 4. By grade 8, the spread might be from grade 2 to grade 10 or even higher. This makes things very difficult for the grade 8 teacher of course - not to mention the students working at a grade 2 level.
The upshot is that, despite the fact that some students are achieving well, the province's overall average is powerfully depressed by its long tail of under-achieving students.
The Evidence That Ontario Students Are Not Learning Enough
The percentages of students who pass the Ontario provincial grades 3, 6, and 9 tests are at a virtual standstill at approximately 65 per cent of students - this despite changes to the tests that make them easier! The results of the most recent international comparisons of student achievement (TIMSS and PIRLS) are available from the Education Quality and Accountability Office. They report a significant decline in the academic achievement of Ontario students between 2003 and 2011.
One exception to this pattern has been the OECD's PISA tests. Many people think Canada's high standing on these tests means Ontario students are doing well academically. But there is more to this story than meets the eye. In fact, the PISA tests say nothing about advanced academic learning - like, say, the ability to read difficult text or set up an algebraic equation. Rather, the PISA tests measure how well students can use simple arithmetic and literacy skills to solve everyday problems. In any case, the scores of Ontario students on the PISA tests declined slightly between 2006 and 2009 - a period during which the students in some other countries are galloping ahead.
Our Proposed Alternative to Child-Centred Learning
We know that the world in which today's schools operate - and students learn - is very different from the world of 50 years ago. An education that is predominantly based on textbooks and rote learning from kindergarten through grade 12 will not adequately prepare students for today's world of instant communication and access to information and rapid technological change.
But some things have remained constant within this technological whirlwind. The ability to read and write well and the ability to calculate and analyze numerical data are still skills that anyone who wants to succeed in higher-value, higher-paying jobs in the information economy needs to master. Indeed, even in our personal lives, being able to understand and contribute to the public discourse on today's major issues, e.g. the looming pension crisis, requires good literacy and numeracy skills.
SQE favours the approach supported by the most extensive and credible research: a strong focus on direct instruction, including phonics, drill, and rote learning, in the early years to establish a solid base of literacy and numeracy on which to build students' education in the higher grades. Once students have this base, the judicious use of less traditional methods, such as discovery and computer-assisted learning and a focus on higher-order skills, can be very effective ways to engage students and improve learning outcomes.
Spending More Money Won’t Work
In Kansas City, MO, a judge forced the city to spend nearly $2 billion on its schools between 1985 and 1999. With this money, the school board went on a spending spree. Among other things, it bought 15 new schools, higher teacher salaries, an Olympic-size swimming pool with an underwater viewing room, television and animation studios, a robotics lab, a 25-acre wildlife sanctuary, a zoo, a model United Nations with simultaneous translation capacity, and field trips to Mexico and Senegal. the student-teacher ratio was lowered to 13 to 1. Despite all this spending however, test scores did not rise, the black-white gap did not diminish, and there was less, not more, integration between the races. Of course, the Kansas City experiment is an extreme case, but its failure is similar to that of other jurisdictions that have tried to spend their way to better educational results.
Strong Accountability Measures Are Not Enough
Some people think the way to improve schools is to bring in tough accountability measures, like a rigorous curriculum, high-stakes testing, and standardized reporting. These things too have been tried and, although they have had a slightly-greater success than increased spending, accountability measures are at best a partial solution. In Ontario, for example, the Mike Harris government brought in all of the accountability measures mentioned above - and then some. And the measures did seem to yield a modest improvement in student achievement at first. But even before the PC government was voted out of office, the bureaucratic mice started to eat away at its accountability measures. Today, most of them are neutralized or gone. The curriculum and testing are dumbed down. The school councils are mostly pussy cats. The Ontario College of Teachers has been captured by the teachers' unions. Teacher testing has been scrapped. Ontario's experience is, alas, typical. Accountability measures, by themselves, are simply not enough to generate significant, lasting improvement.
The Solution to Poor Student Learning
The way forward is to make it possible for parents to choose schools that offer alternatives to the child-centred approach. Some parents have that choice today - if they have the minimum of $8,000 per child per year that it costs to send their children to independent schools. Many parents, even those with quite limited household incomes, believe strongly enough in the superiority of traditional methods that they make great sacrifices to afford independent schools. Others home-school or send their children to after-school tutoring services that rely heavily on direct instruction. Unfortunately, circumstances prevent many other parents from accessing these options, and the unfairness is compounded by the fact that the children of less-advantaged parents tend to fare much worse in child-centred classrooms. That is why we favour more choice among publicly-funded schools.
But as we noted earlier, because of the top-to-bottom dominance of the child-centred philosophy in publicly-funded schools and the resistance to alternative approaches, it will be difficult to develop enough alternative options within school boards if we don't at the same time make it possible for all parents to access alternatives outside the system - for example, charter schools or tax-supported independent schools and home-schools.
While we favour direct instruction for our own children, we do not believe that direct instruction should be imposed on all children. Parents should be given the power to choose their children's schools from a large variety of different schooling options (year-round schools, all-boys schools, small neighbourhood schools, Montessori schools, International Baccalaureate schools, sports schools, special-needs schools, traditional schools, distance schools - the options are limited only by their ability to attract a viable number of students). The result would be that every school would be forced to compete for students by improving its service and responsiveness. An added bonus is that the wide diversity of school choices would improve the chances that parents could find schools that are a good match for their children's particular needs.
There is a high degree of choice available in most other sectors these days - day care, restaurants, tutoring services, university programs, reading material, all offering a competitive service. There is no reason why parents should not enjoy school choices that offer similarly-excellent service and responsiveness.
What Parents Can Do
Parents' first priority must be to ensure that their own children get a decent education. Malkin Dare's free book is a practical blueprint on how to go about this. Additional information can be accessed here. To ask a question about your child's educational problems, click here.
However, not all children are lucky enough to have parents who can help them. There is an urgent need to modify the system to make it easier for parents to help their own children. Even recent immigrants. Even illiterate parents. Even single parents. Their children deserve the same access to an excellent education.
The only people who can make this happen are their provincially-elected representatives. Unfortunately, most politicians shrink from supporting school choice policies (thereby antagonizing the powerful teachers' unions) unless they are sure it will translate into a lot of votes. It will take the united voices of thousands of parents to convince provincial legislators to make it possible for more parents to choose good schools for their children. If you agree with this goal, you can help by talking to other people, including your elected member of provincial parliament. You can also write letters and call in to radio phone-in shows. For further information, visit our newsletter archives (especially "Activist Activities") and read our blog.
Lastly, you can help by supporting us financially. We receive no government funding but are generously supported by grants from the Donner Canadian Foundation, the W. Garfield Weston Foundation, the Atlas Economic Research Foundation, the Pirie Foundation, and by the contributions of hundreds of individual supporters. For more information about making a donation, click here. To contact us about other ways to become involved, click here.
SQE Press Releases
- April 7, 2009. School Finder Tool Empowered Parents
- March 25, 2009. Same Old Same Old
- January 27, 2009. It's Family Literacy Day
- December 9, 2008. Help Is At Hand At Report Card Time
- February 12, 2008. Math Education Just Doesn't Add Up
- January 7, 2008. The Real Issue is not Choice - It Is Who Has It!
- November 5, 2007. Education Group Says Arts-Based School Won't Meet Needs of Parents
- October 4, 2007. School Choice Chosen by Education Experts
- September 20, 2007. We hate to say, “We told you so!” BUT
- July 24, 2007. Funding for Faith-Based Schools a Move in the Right Direction
- July 2, 2007. Parents Want Safe Schools: School Choice Can Help
- May 9, 2007. A Word to the Wise: How Ontario's Public Schools Can Win Back Students
- March 15, 2007. Class Size Caps - We Hate to Say We Told You So, BUT....
- February 22, 2007. Society for Quality Education President Recognized For Literacy Work
- January 19, 2007. Doing More With Less
- September 21, 2006. Why Canadian Education Isn't Improving
- September 13, 2006. It's the Teaching! EQAO Results Still Show a Long Way to Go
- September 7, 2006. It's International Literacy Day - Can You Read This?
- August 16, 2006. Parents Need More Reporting, Not Less
- April 24, 2006. Providing the Best - Angus McBeath & Edmonton Schools
- February 15, 2006. A Free Tool to Help Children Who Struggle With Reading Now Available Online
- June 15, 2005. Alberta Gets an A for Its Science Curriculum in Cross-Canada Comparison
- June 23, 2004. New help for literacy or same old same old?
- March 8, 2004.
Alberta's best-kept secret is finally out!
- January 15, 2004.
to focus on Canadian educatio
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